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They returned to Egypt and committed suicide, leaving Octavian as Rome’s undisputed ruler. Cleopatra’s seized treasure allowed him to pay his soldiers, securing their loyalty.

Historians date the start of Octavian’s monarchy to either 31 B. To mollify Rome’s Senate and ruling classes, he passed laws harkening back—at least on the surface—to the traditions of the Roman Republic.

The history of the Roman Empire covers the history of Ancient Rome from the fall of the Roman Republic in 27 BC until the abdication of the last Western emperor in 476 AD.

Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the Republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside of the Italian Peninsula until the 3rd century BC.

Although it was accepted history in the past to date the arrival of the Picts in Scotland to sometime shortly before their mention in Roman history, or to claim a "Pictish Invasion", modern scholarship offers a much earlier date with no full-scale invasion.

They were referenced earlier by Tacitus who referred to them as "Caledonians" which was the name of only one tribe.

Of Augustus’ many names and honorifics, historians favor three of them, each for a different phase in the emperor’s life. His father was a senator and governor in the Roman Republic. Augustus had the Roman month of Sextilius renamed after himself—as his great-uncle and predecessor Julius Caesar had done with July.

His mother Atai was Caesar’s niece, and the young Octavius was raised in part by his grandmother Julia Ceasaris, Caesar’s sister. August was the month of several of the emperor's greatest victories, including the defeat and suicide of Antony and Cleopatra. he went to Hispania (modern-day Spain) to fight alongside Caesar.

He did not increase the month's length, which had been 31 days since the establishment of the Julian calendar in 45 B. Octavius donned the toga, the Roman sign of manhood, at age 16, and began taking on responsibilities through his family connections. He was shipwrecked along the way, and had to cross enemy territory to reach his great-uncle—an act that impressed Caesar enough to name Octavius his heir and successor in his will.

The 17-year-old Octavius was at Apollonia (in present-day Albania) when the news of Caesar’s death and his own inheritance arrived. Antony began a romantic and political alliance with Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, which continued even after a Senatorial decree forced his marriage to Octavian’s sister Octavia Minor. In retaliation, Octavian declared war on Cleopatra.


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